While there is currently no definitive way to predict who will respond and who will not, researchers at Brighton and Sussex Medical School in the United Kingdom are working on a blood test that could identify about half of those who may not.
CURE spoke with Matthew Mossanen, M.D., from the Division of Urology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, about what Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is and what patients should know about this treatment option.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) updated the prescribing information for two immunotherapy agents – Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Tecentriq (atezolizumab) – approved to treat patients with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer who are not eligible for cisplatin-based therapy.
With five immunotherapy drugs approved in the bladder cancer space, the next question researchers find themselves asking is whether these drugs would work better alone or as part of a combination for patients with metastatic disease.
Women are more likely to die from bladder cancer earlier on after diagnosis, according to recent study findings published in the European Journal of Cancer. However, after that time frame the risk of death is higher for men.
Many questions still remain in the treatment of localized bladder cancer, like which patients are best suited to receive neoadjuvant (pre-surgery) chemotherapy – a procedure that could be beneficial to many, but comes with increased toxicity.
Because little is known about the effect of patients' sex on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors as cancer treatments, the researchers performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the heterogeneity of immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy between men and women.