Gynecologic cancers begin in the female reproductive organs: the uterus, which includes the cervix; ovaries, which attach to the top of the uterus; the vagina, which connects the uterus to the outside of the body; and the vulva, which are the external genitals.
According to Yale Medicine, gynecologic cancers are less common compared with breast or colorectal cancer. However, despite this, all women are at risk, which increases with age.
Risk factors for gynecologic cancers include human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted infection, age, genetics and diethylstilbestrol exposure.
Symptoms of gynecologic cancers vary, but abnormal vaginal bleeding and discharge can occur, as well as pelvic pain, bloating, constipation, or an increased need to urinate.