Glossary
January 16, 2009 – Jennifer M. Gangloff
Breaking News from ASCO
June 09, 2006 – Staff Reports
House Call
June 09, 2006 – Jay Thomas, MD, PhD
Breast Cancer & MDS
January 09, 2009 – Elizabeth Whittington
Bookshelf
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Web Exclusive: Follow-Up Care for Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – The National Cancer Institute
Weighing Prevention Versus Cost
June 09, 2006 – Melissa Knopper
Diagnosing Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – Susan R. Peck, PhD
Sharing a Lifetime
June 09, 2006
Sunburn Reasons & Remedies
June 09, 2006 – Monica Zangwill, MD
Inherited Syndromes Link Cancers
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Future Risk for Survivors
June 09, 2006 – Rabiya S. Tuma, PhD
Nature's Spoils
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
The Discovery of Taxol
June 09, 2006 – Frank Stephenson
Melanoma: The Other Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Picture Not Perfect
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Science of Suncreen
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Planning for Death
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Does Heaven Exist?
June 09, 2006 – Jo Cavallo
To Be or Not To Be: Is That the Right Question?
June 09, 2006 – Harvey Max Chochinov, MD PhD
Is It Time to Change the Design of Clinical Trials?
June 09, 2006 – Alice McCarthy
Drink Up
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
A Life Well-Lived
June 09, 2006 – Deborah Lang Hampton
Web Exclusive: Caregivers Often Neglect Their Mental Health
June 09, 2006 – The American Cancer Society
Letters from Our Readers
June 09, 2006
Message from the Editor-at-Large
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Choosing a Counselor
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Tips for Preventing Infection
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Cancer as a Legacy
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Fighting Cancer Together
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Running on Empty
June 09, 2006 – Melissa Knopper
The Blame Game
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
People & Places
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
A Beautiful Day: The Story of a Son's Loss
June 09, 2006 – Kevin Cropp
Surf & Turf
June 09, 2006 – Jennifer M. Gangloff
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Saving Your Skin
June 09, 2006 – Monica Zangwill, MD
Confronting Death
June 09, 2006 – Jo Cavallo
Glossary
January 16, 2009 – Jennifer M. Gangloff
Breaking News from ASCO
June 09, 2006 – Staff Reports
House Call
June 09, 2006 – Jay Thomas, MD, PhD
Breast Cancer & MDS
January 09, 2009 – Elizabeth Whittington
Bookshelf
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Web Exclusive: Follow-Up Care for Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – The National Cancer Institute
Weighing Prevention Versus Cost
June 09, 2006 – Melissa Knopper
Diagnosing Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – Susan R. Peck, PhD
Sharing a Lifetime
June 09, 2006
Sunburn Reasons & Remedies
June 09, 2006 – Monica Zangwill, MD
Inherited Syndromes Link Cancers
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Future Risk for Survivors
June 09, 2006 – Rabiya S. Tuma, PhD
Nature's Spoils
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
The Discovery of Taxol
June 09, 2006 – Frank Stephenson
Currently Viewing
Melanoma: The Other Skin Cancer
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Science of Suncreen
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Planning for Death
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Does Heaven Exist?
June 09, 2006 – Jo Cavallo
To Be or Not To Be: Is That the Right Question?
June 09, 2006 – Harvey Max Chochinov, MD PhD
Is It Time to Change the Design of Clinical Trials?
June 09, 2006 – Alice McCarthy
Drink Up
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
A Life Well-Lived
June 09, 2006 – Deborah Lang Hampton
Web Exclusive: Caregivers Often Neglect Their Mental Health
June 09, 2006 – The American Cancer Society
Letters from Our Readers
June 09, 2006
Message from the Editor-at-Large
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Choosing a Counselor
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Tips for Preventing Infection
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Cancer as a Legacy
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
Fighting Cancer Together
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
Running on Empty
June 09, 2006 – Melissa Knopper
The Blame Game
June 09, 2006 – Kathy LaTour
People & Places
June 09, 2006 – Elizabeth Whittington
A Beautiful Day: The Story of a Son's Loss
June 09, 2006 – Kevin Cropp
Surf & Turf
June 09, 2006 – Jennifer M. Gangloff
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Saving Your Skin
June 09, 2006 – Monica Zangwill, MD
Confronting Death
June 09, 2006 – Jo Cavallo

Melanoma: The Other Skin Cancer

Current and new treatments help patients with melanoma.  

BY Elizabeth Whittington
PUBLISHED June 09, 2006

Much less common than nonmelanoma skin cancer, melanoma accounts for only 4 percent of all skin cancers, but is responsible for about 70 percent of skin cancer deaths.

Melanoma originates from mutations occurring in melanocytes—cells that produce melanin, the pigment that protects deeper layers of the skin from UV rays.

Melanoma is usually curable when caught early—the five-year survival rate for early-stage disease is more than 90 percent—but the risk of recurrence is high. When the disease reaches the advanced stage, it is very difficult to treat. Response rates with dacarbazine, the only approved chemotherapy for melanoma, average only 20 percent and complete responses are rare. Standard treatment for melanoma is surgery to remove the cancerous tissue. If the melanoma has progressed, chemotherapy, radiation or cytokine therapy (Intron-A [interferon alpha] and Proleukin [interleukin-2]) is typically given. Metastatic melanoma has fewer options, but research has uncovered possible new weaponry against this deadly disease.

Drugs that treat other cancers are also proving useful for melanoma, including the brain cancer drug, Temodar (temozolomide) and Nexavar (sorafenib), which is active against kidney cancer. Phase III studies with each drug are currently under way for melanoma.

Also in testing for melanoma are two monoclonal antibodies, MDX-010 (ipilimumab) and ticilimumab, that bind to and disable CTLA-4, a naturally occurring molecule that diminishes the immune response. Given fast-track status by the Food and Drug Administration, MDX-010 is in phase III testing for advanced metastatic melanoma and has also shown the ability to shrink tumors in patients with advanced kidney cancer. Ticilimumab is also being developed for melanoma and kidney cancer.

TNFerade treats melanoma a bit differently by stimulating production of a potent immune system protein called tumor necrosis factor-alpha from inside the tumor. A phase I study of 30 solid tumor patients treated with TNFerade plus radiation included three melanoma patients, all of whom had complete disappearance of the tumor. Larger TNFerade studies for melanoma are ongoing.

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